Actual is not normal (a tribute to Edward Tufte)
Image by kevin dooley
A macro of a graph in Edward Tufte’s "The Visual Display of Quantitative Information", a classic on graphic design of data displays. This particular graph shows the weather of NYC over a year, and this particular data is the actual and average amount of precipitation in a month (not sure which one).
One of Tufte’s principles is to maximize the information to ink ratio–only use ink to portray what the data needs. In this case, a two-category bar graph alone has rather poor information to ink ratio–all that ink to portray two numbers! However, this image is only about 1/50th or less of the total image, so its tininess makes it tolerable.
If you’re looking for a last minute book gift, this is one of the most stunning coffee table books I have, AND it’s got wonderful insight for anyone who works with data and visualization.
Formula for Normal Distribution,
Formula for Normal Distribution,Central Limit Theorem:Normal Distribution
In many natural processes, random variation can be done due to a particular probability distribution known as the normal distribution, which can observed commonly in probability distribution. Mathematicians de Moivre and Laplace used this type of distribution in the 1700’s. Before 1800’s, German mathematician and physicist Karl Gauss used this distribution to analyze astronomical data, and it consequently became known as the Gaussian distribution among the scientific community.
The shape of the normal distribution reassembled that of a bell, so it sometimes is referred to as the “bell curve
Formula for Normal Distribution
F(x) = 1/(σ ‘sqrt(2pi)’) e^-1/2((x-µ)/σ)^2
on the domain . The statisticians and mathematicians can uniformly used the term such as “normal distribution” for this distribution, physicists sometimes call it a Gaussian distribution and, because of its curved flaring shape, social scientists refer to it as the “bell curve.” Feller (1968) uses the symbol φ(x)for p(x) in the above equation, but then switches to n(x)in Feller (1971).
De Moivre developed the normal distribution instead of the binomial distribution, and it was subsequently used by Laplace in 1783 to study measurement errors and by Gauss in 1809 in the analysis of astronomical data the normal distribution is implemented in mathematical as normal distribution
Therefore the “standard normal distribution” is given by taking µ=0 and σ^2=1in a general normal distribution. Then the arbitrary normal distribution can be converted into a standard normal distribution by changing variables to z = (x -µ)/σ, so dz = dx / σ, yielding
Central Limit Theorem: Normal Distribution
The Normal distributions has many properties to determination, so random varieties with unknown distributions are often assumed to be normal, especially in physics and astronomy. Although the assumption will be a dangerous, it is often a good approximation due to a surprising result known as the central limit theorem In This theorem the mean of any set of variates with any distribution having a finite mean and variance ends to the normal distribution. Many common attributes such as test scores, height, etc., we can follow roughly this distribution, with few members at the low and high ends and many in the middle.
normal - click on the image below for more information.
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Berlin: GSP Studios Seizes 'Mad to Be Normal,' Starring David Tennant
BERLIN — GSP Studios, the U.K. production and sales company, has taken international sales rights to “Mad to Be Normal,” starring David Tennant, Elisabeth Moss, Michael Gambon and Gabriel Byrne. Sales on the R.D. Laing biopic will kick off Thursday at …